Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2022 Jul 23. doi: 10.1007/s00404-022-06677-z. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: Excessive gestational weight gain (eGWG) is associated with adverse long-term maternal outcomes. Most lifestyle interventions that incorporate physical activity have been ineffective at reducing eGWG. The purpose of this study was to determine if sleep modified the relationships between physical activity change from the 2nd to 3rd trimester and the odds of excessive gestational weight gain (eGWG).
METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study of pregnant birthing people with overweight or obesity (n = 105). We estimated physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy and sleep characteristics (i.e., sleep quality, daytime dysfunction, sleep efficiency, sleep duration) in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy with validated measures. We used regression models with sleep and PAEE change (increase/stable vs. decrease) interaction terms to examine the impact of sleep on PAEE change and eGWG.
RESULTS: Mean GWG was 37.02 ± 16.76 lbs. and 80% of participants experienced eGWG. Eighteen percent of participants increased their PAEE from the 2nd to the 3rd trimester. Increasing (vs. decreasing) PAEE was associated with lower log-odds of eGWG only among participants that slept at least 8 h/night (p = 0.06), had at least 85% sleep efficiency (p = 0.03), or reported less daytime dysfunction (p = 0.08). Sleep quality did not moderate the association between PAEE change and eGWG.
CONCLUSIONS: Weight management interventions in pregnancy should consider screening for and addressing poor sleep in the second trimester.