Toxins (Basel). 2022 Jun 24;14(7):430. doi: 10.3390/toxins14070430.
Due to the climatic change, an increase in aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) maize contamination has been reported in Europe. As an alternative to mineral binders, natural phytogenic compounds are increasingly used to counteract the negative effects of AFB1 in farm animals. In cows, even low dietary AFB1 concentrations may result in the milk excretion of the genotoxic carcinogen metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). In this study, we tested the ability of dietary turmeric powder (TP), an extract from Curcuma longa (CL) rich in curcumin and curcuminoids, in reducing AFM1 mammary excretion in Holstein-Friesian cows. Both active principles are reported to inhibit AFM1 hepatic synthesis and interact with drug transporters involved in AFB1 absorption and excretion. A crossover design was applied to two groups of cows (n = 4 each) with a 4-day washout. Animals received a diet contaminated with low AFB1 levels (5 ± 1 µg/kg) for 10 days ± TP supplementation (20 g/head/day). TP treatment had no impact on milk yield, milk composition or somatic cell count. Despite a tendency toward a lower average AFM1 milk content in the last four days of the treatment (below EU limits), no statistically significant differences with the AFB1 group occurred. Since the bioavailability of TP active principles may be a major issue, further investigations with different CL preparations are warranted.