BMC Cancer. 2022 Jul 25;22(1):815. doi: 10.1186/s12885-022-09919-0.
BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASIs) are widely used in the treatment of hypertension. However, their impact on the outcome of the combined treatment of rectal cancer is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of RASIs on the survival of rectal cancer patients with associated hypertension after neoadjuvant treatment and radical resection.
METHODS: Between 2008 and 2016, 242 radical (R0) rectal resections for cancer were performed after neoadjuvant treatment in patients with associated hypertension. At the time of treatment, 158 patients were on RASIs, including 35 angiotensin-receptor antagonists (ARB) users and 123 angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) users. Eighty-four patients were on drugs other than RASIs (non-RASI users). The survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator with the log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazards model.
RESULTS: The log-rank test showed a significantly worse overall survival (OS) in the group of ACEI users compared to ARB users (p = 0.009) and non-RASI users (p = 0.013). Disease-free survival (DFS) was better in the group of ARB users compared to ACEI users. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.064). The Multivariate Cox analysis showed a significant beneficial effect of ARBs on OS (HR: 0.326, 95% CI: 0.147-0.724, p = 0.006) and ARBs on DFS (HR: 0.339, 95% CI: 0.135-0.850, p = 0.021) compared to ACEIs. Other factors affecting OS included age (HR: 1.044, 95% CI: 1.016-1.073, p = 0.002), regional lymph node metastasis (ypN +) (HR: 2.157, 95% CI: 1.395-3.334, p = 0.001) and perineural invasion (PNI) (HR: 3.864, 95% CI: 1.799-8.301, p = 0.001). Additional factors affecting DFS included ypN + (HR: 2.310, 95% CI: 1.374-3.883, p = 0.002) and PNI (HR: 4.351, 95% CI: 1.584-11.954, p = 0.004).
CONCLUSIONS: The use of ARBs instead of ACEIs may improve the outcome of the combined therapy for rectal cancer patients with associated hypertension.