JAMA Cardiol. 2022 Jul 27. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2022.2222. Online ahead of print.
IMPORTANCE: In patients with severe aortic stenosis and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 50%, early LVEF improvement after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is associated with improved 1-year mortality; however, its association with long-term clinical outcomes is not known.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between early LVEF improvement after TAVR and 5-year outcomes.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cohort study analyzed patients enrolled in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) 1, 2, and S3 trials and registries between July 2007 and April 2015. High- and intermediate-risk patients with baseline LVEF less than 50% who underwent transfemoral TAVR were included in the current study. Data were analyzed from August 2020 to May 2021.
EXPOSURES: Early LVEF improvement, defined as increase of 10 percentage points or more at 30 days and also as a continuous variable (ΔLVEF between baseline and 30 days).
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: All-cause death at 5 years.
RESULTS: Among 659 included patients with LVEF less than 50%, 468 (71.0%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 82.4 (7.7) years. LVEF improvement within 30 days following transfemoral TAVR occurred in 216 patients (32.8%) (mean [SD] ΔLVEF, 16.4 [5.7%]). Prior myocardial infarction, diabetes, cancer, higher baseline LVEF, larger left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, and larger aortic valve area were independently associated with lower likelihood of LVEF improvement. Patients with vs without early LVEF improvement after TAVR had lower 5-year all-cause death (102 [50.0%; 95% CI, 43.3-57.1] vs 246 [58.4%; 95% CI, 53.6-63.2]; P = .04) and cardiac death (52 [29.5%; 95% CI, 23.2-37.1] vs 135 [38.1%; 95% CI, 33.1-43.6]; P = .05). In multivariable analyses, early improvement in LVEF (modeled as a continuous variable) was associated with lower 5-year all-cause death (adjusted hazard ratio per 5% increase in LVEF, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.88-1.00]; P = .04) and cardiac death (adjusted hazard ratio per 5% increase in LVEF, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.82-0.98]; P = .02) after TAVR. Restricted cubic spline analysis demonstrated a visual inflection point at ΔLVEF of 10% beyond which there was a steep decline in all-cause mortality with increasing degree of LVEF improvement. There were no statistically significant differences in rehospitalization, New York Heart Association functional class, or Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Overall Summary score at 5 years in patients with vs without early LVEF improvement. In subgroup analysis, the association between early LVEF improvement and 5-year all-cause death was consistent regardless of the presence or absence of coronary artery disease or prior myocardial infarction.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In patients with severe aortic stenosis and LVEF less than 50%, 1 in 3 experience LVEF improvement within 1 month after TAVR. Early LVEF improvement is associated with lower 5-year all-cause and cardiac death.