Obesity (Silver Spring). 2022 Aug;30(8):1691-1698. doi: 10.1002/oby.23482.
OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the association between adolescent BMI and myopia severity.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 1,359,153 adolescents who were medically examined before mandatory military service. Mild-to-moderate and high myopia were defined based on right-eye refractive data. BMI was categorized based on the US age- and sex-matched percentiles. Logistic regression models were applied separately for women and men to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for myopia per BMI category.
RESULTS: A total of 318,712 adolescents had mild-to-moderate myopia and 23,569 had high myopia. Compared with low-normal BMI (reference group), adjusted ORs for mild-to-moderate and high myopia increased with increasing BMI status, reaching 1.39 (95% CI: 1.23-1.57) and 1.73 (95% CI: 1.19-2.51) for men with severe obesity, respectively, and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.12-1.27) and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.14-1.65) for women with mild obesity, respectively. ORs for mild-to-moderate and high myopia were also higher in men with underweight (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.18-1.23 and OR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.30-1.47) and women with underweight (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.03-1.09 and OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04-1.22). The overall size effect was greater for men than women (pinteraction < 0.001), in whom the group with severe obesity did not reach statistical significance.
CONCLUSIONS: BMI was associated with myopia in a J-shaped pattern, with the size effect being greater for adolescent men than women. This study indicates that both low BMI and high BMI are associated with mild-to-moderate and severe myopia.