Brief Bioinform. 2022 Jul 29:bbac287. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbac287. Online ahead of print.
Genetic association studies have been very successful at elucidating the genetic background of many complex diseases/traits. However, the X-chromosome is often neglected in these studies because of technical difficulties and the fact that most tools only utilize genetic data from autosomes. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of different practical approaches that are followed to incorporate the X-chromosome in association analysis, such as Genome-Wide Association Studies and Expression Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis. In general, the choice of which test statistics is most appropriate will depend on three main criteria: (1) the underlying X-inactivation model, (2) if Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium holds and sex-specific allele frequencies are expected and (3) whether adjustment for confounding variables is required. All in all, it is recommended that a combination of different association tests should be used for the analysis of X-chromosome.