Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2022 Jul 1;23(7):2397-2405. doi: 10.31557/APJCP.2022.23.7.2397.
BACKGROUND: In Northeast Thailand, Praziquantel (PZQ) is used to treat infection with the Opisthorchis viverrnini (OV). OV has highly prevalence in this area due to the traditional consumption of uncooked cyprinid fish. The nephrotoxic effects of PZQ metabolite excretion through the kidney have not been assessed yet. This study investigated the relationship between number of Praziquantel treatments and kidney parenchymal change.
METHODS: A study was carried out on participants from the Cholangiocarcinoma Screening and Care Program (CASCAP) between 2013 – 2018. The frequency of PZQ use was reported using a standardized questionnaire. Kidney parenchymal change (KPC) was defined as having a kidney abnormality based on ultrasonography diagnosed by well-trained general practitioners. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) measured associations between PZQ frequency and KPC controlling for the effects of other extraneous factors using multiple logistic regression.
RESULTS: A total of 490,969 subjects with mean age of 55.2 (SD = 9.15) years were enrolled among them 62.1% were female. Prevalence of KPC was 1.2% while prevalence of KPC were 1.2%, 1.3%, 1.4%, and 1.5% for participants with one, two, three, and more than 3 PZQ treatment occasions respectively. Those dose-response relationship was statistically significant based on chi-square test for trend (p-value <0.001). After controlling for possible confounders, compared to non-treatment, subjects with more than 3 treatment occasions were 25% more likely to have a KPC positive result (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.02 – 1.52; p-value = 0.028).
CONCLUSION: The number of repeated PZQ treatments is statistically significantly related to KPC. This relationship could be included in health messaging for those who continue eating uncooked fish with an understanding that the OV infection can easily be cured by PZQ without any other health concerns. For positive OV cases, however, the known efficacy of PZQ could over-ride the small magnitude of the adverse effect.