Med J Malaysia. 2022 Jul;77(4):440-445.
INTRODUCTION: Mortality of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) bacteraemia was reported to be on the rise globally. The 30-day mortality rate of K. pneumoniae bacteraemia ranges from 16% to 55% in Beijing, Shanghai, and Taiwan. However, there is a lack of research on the survival outcomes of K. pneumoniae bacteraemia in Malaysia. The objectives of this study were to determine the poor prognostic factors and predictors of 14-day in-hospital mortality from K. pneumoniae bacteraemia.
METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with K. pneumoniae bacteraemia in Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HCTM). We included adult patients with blood cultures positive for K. pneumoniae between 1 January 2016 and 31 December 2019. Those with polymicrobial bacteraemia were excluded. Medical records were reviewed to obtain the sociodemographic data, gender, underlying comorbidities, invasive procedures at presentation, sources of bacteraemia, and whether appropriate empirical and definitive antibiotics was given on time. Data regarding complications of K. pneumoniae bacteraemia, including liver abscess, endopthalmitis, septic shock, Quick Pitt (qPitt) bacteraemia score defined as hypothermia, hypotension, respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, and altered mental status and stay in intensive care unit (ICU) were also recorded. The main outcome measure used was the survival in 14 days. Summary of statistical analysis was done.
RESULTS: A total of 260 patients with K. pneumoniae bacteraemia were included. All patients received appropriate empirical and definitive antibiotics within 24 h of the time that the sample for index blood cultures was obtained. Respiratory infection, septic shock, qPitt bacteraemia score ≥2, solid organ malignancy, stay in ICU, central venous line insertion at presentation, urinary catheterisation at presentation, and in-patient mechanical ventilation were identified as independent predictors of mortality in K. pneumoniae bacteraemia. The rate of complications such as liver abscess, endophthalmitis, ICU admission, and septic shock was not significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. The 14-day in-hospital mortality rate was 12.3%. The median length of hospitalisation was 11 days (IQR 6 – 19) . The predictors of poor prognosis for 14 days in-hospital mortality for K. pneumoniae bacteraemia were as follows: qPitt bacteraemia score ≥2, central venous line insertion, indwelling urinary catheter at presentation, and in-patient mechanical ventilation. Timing from K. pneumoniae bacteraemia event to death among those qPitt bacteraemia scores ≥2 was only for 9 days or less.
CONCLUSIONS: The 14-day in-hospital mortality of patients with K. pneumoniae bacteraemia in our setting was low. The qPitt bacteraemia score ≥2 was the strongest predictor of poor prognosis for 14-day in-hospital mortality in patients with K. pneumoniae bacteraemia. The qPitt bacteraemia score should be proposed to be used as a bedside screening tool for gram negative bacteraemia in our daily clinical practice, which is also useful for predicting mortality in critically ill patients.