Clin Rheumatol. 2022 Jul 30. doi: 10.1007/s10067-022-06312-x. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The plasma atherogenic index (PAI) is associated with cardiovascular diseases. This study evaluated the relationship between PAI and obesity in patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and its advantage over conventional lipid components in predicting obesity.
METHODS: The cross-sectional study included 164 FMF patients in the attack-free period and a control group of 160 healthy individuals. Serum lipid components were measured, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). PAI was calculated as log 10 (TG/HDL-C). The relationship between PAI, four conventional lipid profiles, and obesity was evaluated.
RESULTS: The mean PAI values (p = 0.003), frequency of obesity (p = 0.005), TC (p = 0.008), TG (p = 0.000), and LDL-C (p = 0.005) values were determined to be statistically significantly higher in the FMF patients than in the control group. The FMF patients with a higher PAI value had a higher risk of obesity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, TC, and LDL-C, and lower HDL-C (p < 0.001). The Pearson coefficient for PAI (r = 0.854; p < 0.001) was calculated as an explanatory percentage on the variable of obesity of r2 = 0.730. There was a stronger relationship between obesity and PAI than conventional lipid components (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: We have found that the PAI, BMI, TC, TG, and LDL-C values of the FMF patients were determined to be higher. The higher PAI was strongly correlated to obesity in FMF patients. The first time in FMF patients, PAI showed increased sensitivity to predict obesity, higher than conventional lipid components. It can be a promising biomarker for obesity compared to other lipid components. A low-cost and readily available index derived from routine (TG and HDL-C) tests are advantages in identifying obesity in FMF patients. Key Points • The PAI is valuable for atherosclerotic CVD risk management in patients with rheumatismal diseases. • A correlation is found between PAI level and obesity, and it is used as a biomarker for obesity in the healthy population. • The PAI revealed increased sensitivity to predict obesity, higher than conventional lipid components in FMF patients.