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Impact of the changing landscape of induction therapy prior to autologous stem cell transplantation in 540 newly diagnosed myeloma patients: a retrospective real-world study

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2022 Aug 20. doi: 10.1007/s00432-022-04184-x. Online ahead of print.


INTRODUCTION: Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard treatment for younger patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). However, due to restrictive exclusion criteria, more than half of eligible patients are usually excluded from transplant studies.

METHODS: This retrospective monocentric analysis included 540 patients with MM who received an ASCT between 1996 and 2019.

RESULTS: Up to 2005, induction therapy consisted mainly of conventional chemotherapies, e.g. vincristine/doxorubicin/dexamethasone (VAD). In the following years, the triple-combinations based on bortezomib coupled with doxorubicin/dexamethasone (PAD), melphalan/prednisolone (VMP), cyclophposphamide/dexamethasone (VCD) or bendamustine/prednisolone (BPV) became the most popular treatment options. A progressive improvement in PFS was observed in patients treated with the two current induction therapies BPV (47 months) or VCD (54 months) compared to VAD (35 months, p < 0.03), PAD (39 months, p < 0.01 and VMP (36 months, p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in median OS (VAD 78, PAD 74, VMP 72, BPV 80 months and VCD not reached). In our analysis, we also included 139 patients who do fulfill at least one of the exclusion criteria for most phase 3 transplant studies (POEMS/amyloidosis/plasma cell leukemia, eGFR < 40 mL/min, severe cardiac dysfunction or poor general condition). Outcome for these patients was not significantly inferior compared to patients who met the inclusion criteria for most of the transplant studies with PFS of 36 vs 41 months (p = 0.78) and OS of 78 vs 79 months (p = 0.34).

CONCLUSIONS: Our real-world data in unselected pts also stress the substantial value of ASCT during the first-line treatment of younger MM pts.

PMID:35987926 | DOI:10.1007/s00432-022-04184-x

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