Tech Coloproctol. 2022 Aug 20. doi: 10.1007/s10151-022-02670-5. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine if robotic surgery can reproduce the technical advantages and oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of locally advanced colorectal cancer invading the urinary bladder.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the prospectively maintained data of patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer invading the urinary bladder undergoing robotic or laparoscopic surgery between June 2006 and November 2020. Clinicopathologic features, surgical outcomes, and oncologic efficacy were compared between patient groups of robotic or laparoscopic surgery. All patients underwent surgery with the intent of R0 resection for the primary tumor. Major surgical complications were defined as Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ III. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors.
RESULTS: A total of 41 patients (M:F = 32:9; median age: 63 [42-88] years) were analysed; 32 underwent laparoscopic surgery and 9 underwent robotic surgery. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in baseline demographic and clinicopathologic features. There were no significant differences in terms of mean operative time (353.24 vs. 387.33 min), mean blood loss (315.00 vs. 171.11 mL), mean number of lymph nodes harvested (27.16 vs. 23.50), R0 resection (89.7 vs. 66.7%), conversion (12.5 vs. 11.1%), major complication rate (9.4 vs. 22.2%), mean time to flatus passage (4.8 vs. 4.1 days), mean postoperative length of hospital stay (18.9 vs. 19.8 days), 5-year disease-free survival rate (64.6 vs. 62.5%) and overall survival rate (75.3 vs. 83.3%). Multivariate analysis showed that R1 resection was the only independent prognostic factor for reduced disease-free survival (hazard ratio 21.386; 95% confidence interval 1.991-229.723; p = 0.0115).
CONCLUSIONS: Robotic surgery can reproduce the technical advantages and oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of locally advanced colorectal cancer invading the urinary bladder. However, larger studies are mandatory to clarify the role of robotic surgery in such a scenario.