Vet World. 2022 Jun;15(6):1506-1514. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2022.1506-1514. Epub 2022 Jun 18.
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Salmonellosis is an infectious disease that often occurs in chickens and is caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The use of antibiotics to prevent this disease can result in the development of resistance in pathogenic bacteria, in addition to the presence of antibiotic residues in consumed carcasses. Red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. rubrum) has active compounds that potentially act as immunomodulators which increase specific and non-specific immune responses through the induction of cytokine production. This study was conducted to determine the effects of red ginger powder mixed in feed for starter and finisher broiler chickens, based on the evaluation of the expression of immunoglobulin A (IgA), histopathologic description of the ileum and cecum, IgA, and immunoglobulin Y (IgY) expression in the spleen, and the isolation count of S. enteritidis in fresh fecal samples.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 starter and 100 finisher Cobb broiler chickens were divided into four groups, designated as T0, T1, T2, and T3, respectively: Group T0 was fed commercial feed with no added 2% red ginger powder or S. enteritidis induction, and served as a negative control; Group T1 was inoculated with a 0.25 mL S. enteritidis oral induction (1 × 107 colony-forming unit [CFU] [0.5 McFarland standard]), and served as a positive control; Group T2 was fed with feed containing 2% red ginger powder; while Group T3 was fed with feed containing 2% red ginger powder and was orally inoculated with S. enteritidis with a dose similar to T1. The normal feed was given on the 1st-7th days. The mixture of 2% red ginger powder was given on the 7th-15th days. The S. enteritidis was induced on the 15th day (1 × 107 CFU). Necropsy was performed on the 16th day and tissues were fixed in 10% formalin and routinely processed for histopathologic and immunohistochemical analyses. The data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance test, Tukey’s analysis, and the Mann-Whitney U non-parametric statistical analysis test.
RESULTS: The 2% red ginger powder was found to significantly (p < 0.05) increase IgA expression and additionally decrease tissue damage in the cecum and ileum. It also increased IgA and IgY expression in the spleen. In addition, a decrease was observed in the S. enteritidis number isolated from finisher fresh feces, but none was found in the isolated starter fresh feces.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the addition of red ginger powder to chicken feed is a potential natural immunomodulator against S. enteritidis infection.