Diabet Med. 2022 Aug 23:e14941. doi: 10.1111/dme.14941. Online ahead of print.
AIMS: The objectives of this scoping review were to: 1) identify the target audience and contexts in which strategies to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) medication adherence have been used, 2) provide an overview of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) used, 3) describe the determinants of behaviour targeted by strategies, and 4) to identify current gaps in strategies.
METHODS: A systemic search for articles related to T2DM, medication adherence, and strategies was conducted in EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Daily using the OvidSP platform on March 11, 2021. All publications involving strategies to overcome medication non-adherence among adults with T2DM were included. Strategies were categorized according to the BCT taxonomy and the determinants of behaviour targeted by each strategy was classified by using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF).
RESULTS: The search identified 58 articles and 61 strategies. The BCT categories Antecedents and Natural consequences and BCTs Feedback on outcome(s) of behaviour, Adding objects to the environment, and Information about health consequences were identified most frequently as components of strategies resulting in statistically significant improvement in medication adherence. Strategies targeting the TDF domains Reinforcement and Beliefs about Consequences most often resulted in statistically significant improvements in adherence measures.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this review identify BCTs and targeted behaviours with demonstrated success. Further exploration of the myriad of BCTs and the corresponding determinants of behaviour which were not accessed may be warranted for the development of future strategies to improve medication adherence in type 2 diabetes.