J Biopharm Stat. 2022 Jul 4;32(4):567-581. doi: 10.1080/10543406.2022.2080692. Epub 2022 Jun 15.
In oncology drug development, indication selection and optimal dose identification are the primary objectives for the early phase of clinical trials and could significantly impact the probability of success. Master protocols, e.g., basket trial, umbrella trial, and platform trial, have become popular in practice considering the connection of trial designs with multiple indications and treatment candidates. They also enable the optimization of operational resources and maximize the capability of data-driven decision-making. However, most of the available designs are developed with the efficacy endpoint only for treatment effect estimation and testing, without consideration of the safety end point. Thus, it often lacks a comprehensive quantitative framework to allow optimal treatment selection, which could put future development at risk. We propose an optimal Bayesian platform trial design with multiple end points (PMED) to characterize the overall benefit-risk profile. The design is further extended to allow treatment and indication selection within and across arms, with continuous monitoring on multiple interim analyses for futility. In addition, we propose dynamic borrowing across arms to increase the efficiency and accuracy of estimation given the level of similarity across arms. A hierarchical hypothesis structure is utilized to achieve optimal indication and treatment combination selection by controlling family-wise error. Through simulation studies, we show that PMED is a robust design under the studied scenarios with superb power and controlled family-wise error rate.