Int J Med Mushrooms. 2022;24(9):85-95. doi: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2022044572.
Antibiotic resistance has become a worldwide concern, as it has reduced the clinical efficiency of multiple antibiotics. As a result, screening of novel antibacterial substances for antimicrobial potential has increased. Mushrooms are widely known as a source of antimicrobial agents. The current study was designed to investigate the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of Morchella conica and M. esculenta against typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella species. The sensitivity of S. typhi, S. paratyphi-A, and S. typhimurium was determined using an agar diffusion assay. The standard broth microdilution method was used to assess the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Bacterial growth and inhibition kinetics were evaluated spectrophotometrically. All of the mushroom extracts were able to inhibit the growth of typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella species. Notably, all of the extracts possessed bacteriostatic effects (MIC: 3.33 ± 0.6 to 16.0 ± 0 mg/mL) and bactericidal effects (MBC: 8-16 mg/mL). The results showed statistically significant differences of antibacterial and bactericidal potential of mushroom extracts against the tested bacteria (P ≤ 0.05). Thus, extracts of Morchella species can be used as natural antibacterial pharmaceuticals. Further mycopharmacological studies must be performed to characterize their metabolites.