JCO Precis Oncol. 2022 Aug;6:e2200129. doi: 10.1200/PO.22.00129.
PURPOSE: To investigate the use of PTEN biomarker to improve prognostic stratification in patients with localized gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST).
METHODS: PTEN expression and genomic analysis were performed on two independent GIST-60 (n = 60) and GIST-100 (n = 100) cohorts, respectively.
RESULTS: PTEN expression was significantly lower in patients with local and metastatic recurrent tumor compared with those with no recurrence (P = .004). PTEN low expression was significantly associated with poor disease-free survival (DFS) compared with PTEN high expression (43.73 v 117.95 months; P = .0084) and distant metastatic-free survival (DMFS; 57.95 v 117.95 months; P = .0032). PTEN heterozygous loss was observed in approximately 10% of the patients in each cohort and was associated with poor DFS compared with patients with PTEN normal status (27.56 months v not reached [NR]; P < .001) and DMFS (27.56 months v NR; P < .001). Multivariate analysis revealed that PTEN expression was an independent clinical prognosis factor besides tumor size, mitosis index, and location (hazard ratio for DFS: 3.8; P = .033; hazard ratio for DMFS 5.7, P = .01). Furthermore, PTEN low expression was independently associated with poor DMFS in clinically high-risk patients (mDMFS: 42.28 v 65.61 months; P = .0166). In addition, PTEN heterozygous loss was independently associated with poor DMFS in patients at either low/intermediate risk (mDMFS: 18.05 months for PTEN loss v NR for PTEN normal status; P < .001) or at high risk (mDMFS: 27.19 months for PTEN loss v 105.36 months for PTEN normal status; P = .044).
CONCLUSION: PTEN low expression/gene loss is an independent significant prognostic factor and a promising component to strengthen the clinical prognostic tools in patients with localized GIST.