Acta Ophthalmol. 2022 Aug 25. doi: 10.1111/aos.15239. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: The aim of this pilot study was to assess oxygen saturation in retinal blood vessels in patients with monoclonal gammopathies (MGs).
METHODS: Thirty-one patients with MGs (11 women and 20 men, mean age 65.9 ± 8.9 years) were enrolled during 2016-2020. The patients were diagnosed at the Haemato-Oncology Department and subsequently examined at the Ophthalmology Department before initiating systemic therapy. All patients were subjected to automatic retinal oximetry (Oxymap ehf.) and had their fundus photographed (Topcon TRC-50DX retinal camera). We assessed the association between retinal oxygen saturation (SatO2 ) – arterial SatO2 , venous SatO2 and arterio-venous (AV) difference-and MGs parameters: serum monoclonal immunoglobulin (M-protein) level and serum immunoglobulin-free light chains (FLC kappa and lambda), total protein, serum viscosity, haemoglobin, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, creatinine and serum calcium level. Hyperviscosity-related retinopathy was also evaluated.
RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.462; p = 0.009) between the AV difference and the haemoglobin level. A significant, medium strong negative correlation was found between the AV difference and the serum levels of the monoclonal light lambda chains (r = -0.450; p = 0.011). Contrary to expectations, no statistically significant correlation was found between retinal oxygen saturation and the total protein or viscosity.
CONCLUSION: This study found correlation between retinal oxygen saturation and certain parameters in the blood of patients with MGs. Increasing levels of monoclonal immunoglobulin seem to reduce oxygen absorption in retinal arterioles, resulting in a lower AV difference, particularly in patients with a high free light chain level.