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Modified levels of renin angiotensin related components in the frontal cortex and hippocampus were associated with neuroinflammation and lower neuroprotective effects of NGF during acute hepatic encephalopathy in mice

Protein Pept Lett. 2022 Aug 25. doi: 10.2174/0929866529666220825150025. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that involves cognitive and motor dysfunctions due to hepatic failure. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that the angiotensin (Ang) converting enzyme (ACE), Ang II, and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R), that compose the classical pathway of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), exacerbate neuroinflammation in different neurologic diseases. Conversely, Ang-(1-7), ACE2, and Mas receptor, which integrate the alternative RAS axis, have been shown as a promise therapeutic targets in neuropsychiatric disorders, leading to neuroprotection.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the potential participation of the RAS components in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced HE in mice.

METHODS: We also evaluated the levels of neurotrophic factors, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokine in the central nervous system of TAA-induced HE in mice. Mice were submitted to acute liver failure induced by TAA administration by intraperitoneal route. Measurements of RAS components (ACE, Ang II, ACE2 and Ang1-7) and neurotrophic factors (BDNF, GDNF and NGF) were obtained by ELISA assay. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-12p70) and the chemokine (CCL2) were quantified by cytometric bead array. Student’s t test was applied for statistical analysis.

RESULTS: Mice presented increased cortical levels of ACE, while Ang-(1-7) levels were decreased in cortical and hippocampal samples compared to controls. Moreover, HE mice had an increase in the Ang II/Ang-(1-7) ratio along with reduced levels of neural growth factor (NGF) in the prefrontal cortex. They also showed elevated levels of IFN-γ and CCL2 in the prefrontal cortex and of TNF, IL-6, IL-12, and CCL2 in the hippocampus, compared with controls.

CONCLUSION: This study suggested that the reduction of components of the alternative RAS axis was associated with the deleterious effects of neuroinflammation and lower neuroprotective effects of NGF during TAA-induced HE.

PMID:36028967 | DOI:10.2174/0929866529666220825150025

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