BMC Nephrol. 2022 Sep 2;23(1):300. doi: 10.1186/s12882-022-02927-z.
BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis tunneled catheters are prone to failure due to infection or thrombosis. Prediction of catheter dysfunction chance and finding the predisposing risk factors might help clinicians to prolong proper catheter function. The multidimensional mechanism of failures following infection or thrombosis needs a multivariable and comprehensive analytic approach.
METHODS: A longitudinal cross-sectional study was implemented on 1048 patients admitted for the first hemodialysis tunneled catheterization attempt between 2013 and 2019 in Shahid Hasheminejdad hospital, Tehran, Iran. Patients’ information was extracted from digital and also paper records. Based on their criteria, single and multiple variable analyses were done separately in patients with catheter dysfunction due to thrombosis and infection. T-test and Chi-square test were performed in quantitative and categorical variables, respectively. Competing risk regression was performed under the assumption of proportionality for infection and thrombosis, and the sub-distributional hazard ratios (SHR) were calculated. All statistical inferences were made with a significance level of 0.05.
RESULTS: Four hundred sixty-six patients were enrolled in the analysis based on study criteria. Samples’ mean (SD) age was 54(15.54), and 322 (69.1%) patients were female. Three hundred sixty-five catheter dysfunction cases were observed due to thrombosis 123(26.4%) and infection 242(52%). The Median (range) time to catheter dysfunction event was 243(36-1131) days. Single variable analysis showed a statistically significant higher proportion of thrombosis in females (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.77-4.00) and younger patients, respectively. Multivariate competing risk regression showed a statistically significant higher risk of thrombosis in females (Sub-distributional hazard (SHR) = 1.81), hypertensive (SHR = 1.82), and more obese patients (BMI SHR = 1.037). A higher risk of infection was calculated in younger (Age SHR = 0.98) and diabetic (SHR = 1.63) patients using the same method.
CONCLUSION: Female and hypertensive patients are considerably at higher risk of catheter thrombosis, whereas diabetes is the most critical risk factor for infectious catheter dysfunction. Competing risk regression analysis showed a comprehensive result in the assessment of risk factors of catheter dysfunction.