Nevin Manimala Statistics

Patterns of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolates from fattening pigs in Spain

BMC Vet Res. 2022 Sep 3;18(1):333. doi: 10.1186/s12917-022-03377-3.


BACKGROUND: Swine are considered a major source of foodborne salmonellosis, a public health issue further complicated by the circulation of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains that threaten the safety of the food chain. The current study aimed to identify patterns that can help to understand the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella in pigs in Spain through the application of several multivariate statistical methods to data from the AMR national surveillance programs from 2001 to 2017.

RESULTS: A total of 1,318 pig Salmonella isolates belonging to 63 different serotypes were isolated and their AMR profiles were determined. Tetracycline resistance across provinces in Spain was the highest among all antimicrobials and ranged from 66.7% to 95.8%, followed by sulfamethoxazole resistance (range: 42.5% – 77.8%), streptomycin resistance (range: 45.7% – 76.7%), ampicillin resistance (range: 24.3% – 66.7%, with a lower percentage of resistance in the South-East of Spain), and chloramphenicol resistance (range: 8.5% – 41.1%). A significant increase in the percentage of resistant isolates to chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin and trimethoprim from 2013 to 2017 was observed. Bayesian network analysis showed the existence of dependencies between resistance to antimicrobials of the same but also different families, with chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole in the centre of the networks. In the networks, the conditional probability for an isolate susceptible to ciprofloxacin that was also susceptible to nalidixic acid was 0.999 but for an isolate resistant to ciprofloxacin that was also resistant to nalidixic acid was only 0.779. An isolate susceptible to florfenicol would be expected to be susceptible to chloramphenicol, whereas an isolate resistant to chloramphenicol had a conditional probability of being resistant to florfenicol at only 0.221. Hierarchical clustering further demonstrated the linkage between certain resistances (and serotypes). For example, a higher likelihood of multidrug-resistance in isolates belonging to 1,4,[5],12:i:- serotype was found, and in the cluster where all isolates were resistant to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and florfenicol, 86.9% (n = 53) of the isolates were Typhimurium.

CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated the power of multivariate statistical methods in discovering trends and patterns of AMR and found the existence of serotype-specific AMR patterns for serotypes of public health concern in Salmonella isolates in pigs in Spain.

PMID:36057710 | DOI:10.1186/s12917-022-03377-3

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