Ann ICRP. 2022 Jul;51(3):9-103. doi: 10.1177/01466453221080101.
Radiation detriment is a concept developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection to quantify the burden of stochastic effects from low-dose and/or low-dose-rate exposures to the human population. It is determined from the lifetime risks of cancer for a set of organs and tissues and the risk of heritable effects, taking into account the severity of the consequences. This publication provides a historical review of detriment calculation methodology since ICRP Publication 26, with details of the procedure developed in ICRP Publication 103, which clarifies data sources, risk models, computational methods, and rationale for the choice of parameter values. A selected sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify the parameters and calculation conditions that can be major sources of variation and uncertainty in the calculation of radiation detriment. It has demonstrated that sex, age at exposure, dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor, dose assumption in the calculation of lifetime risk, and lethality fraction have a substantial impact on radiation detriment values. Although the current scheme of radiation detriment calculation is well established, it needs to evolve to better reflect changes in population health statistics and progress in scientific understanding of radiation health effects. In this regard, some key parameters require updating, such as the reference population data and cancer severity. There is also room for improvement in cancer risk models based on the accumulation of recent epidemiological findings. Finally, the importance of improving the comprehensibility of the detriment concept and the transparency of its calculation process is emphasised.© 2022 ICRP. Published by SAGE.