J Hematol Oncol. 2022 Sep 5;15(1):126. doi: 10.1186/s13045-022-01339-8.
BACKGROUND: The role of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with mutated IDH1/2 has not been defined. Therefore, we analyzed a large cohort of 3234 AML patients in first complete remission (CR1) undergoing alloHCT or conventional chemo-consolidation and investigated outcome in respect to IDH1/2 mutational subgroups (IDH1 R132C, R132H and IDH2 R140Q, R172K).
METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from bone marrow or peripheral blood samples at diagnosis and analyzed for IDH mutations with denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, Sanger sequencing and targeted myeloid panel next-generation sequencing, respectively. Statistical as-treated analyses were performed using R and standard statistical methods (Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables, Chi-square test for categorical variables, Cox regression for univariate and multivariable models), incorporating alloHCT as a time-dependent covariate.
RESULTS: Among 3234 patients achieving CR1, 7.8% harbored IDH1 mutations (36% R132C and 47% R132H) and 10.9% carried IDH2 mutations (77% R140Q and 19% R172K). 852 patients underwent alloHCT in CR1. Within the alloHCT group, 6.2% had an IDH1 mutation (43.4% R132C and 41.4% R132H) and 10% were characterized by an IDH2 mutation (71.8% R140Q and 24.7% R172K). Variants IDH1 R132C and IDH2 R172K showed a significant benefit from alloHCT for OS (p = .017 and p = .049) and RFS (HR = 0.42, p = .048 and p = .009) compared with chemotherapy only. AlloHCT in IDH2 R140Q mutated AML resulted in longer RFS (HR = 0.4, p = .002).
CONCLUSION: In this large as-treated analysis, we showed that alloHCT is able to overcome the negative prognostic impact of certain IDH mutational subclasses in first-line consolidation treatment and could pending prognostic validation, provide prognostic value for AML risk stratification and therapeutic decision making.