Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2022 Sep 6;21(1):178. doi: 10.1186/s12933-022-01612-7.
BACKGROUND: Offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes have an increased risk for acquiring early onset cardiovascular disease (CVD). Arterial stiffness, measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV), is a non-invasive biomarker for CVD risk assessment. Our aim is to determine whether PWV is increased in young adult offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes.
METHODS: This is a case-control study carried out in the hospital district of Helsinki and Uusimaa, Finland. 75 offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes (cases) and 84 offspring of mothers without diabetes (controls), aged 18-23 years, were enrolled in this study. All participants attended clinical assessments, including questionnaires and laboratory tests. Carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV), carotid-radial PWV (crPWV), and PWV ratio were measured from each participant using the Complior Analyse mechanotransducer (Alam Medical, France). Student’s t-test and chi-squared test were used to assess differences between the groups. Stata 17.0, StataCorp LP (College Station, TX, USA) statistical package was used for the analysis.
RESULTS: We did not observe any differences in conventional CVD risk factors: systolic blood pressure, LDL, HbA1c, and smoking between cases and controls. We detected higher cfPWV in cases 6.5 (SD ± 1.2) m/s than in controls 6.2 (SD ± 0.7) m/s, p = 0.049, after adjustments for BMI, smoking, mean arterial pressure, height, and pulse rate was made. We did not observe any difference between cases and controls regarding crPWV or PWV ratio. Additionally, we detected no sex differences.
CONCLUSIONS: We report a novel finding of signs of increased arterial stiffness already in young adult offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes compared to matched offspring of mothers without diabetes. Our finding suggests that exposure to an adverse intrauterine environment of type 1 diabetes mothers may affect the vascular health of offspring already in young adulthood. Additional research within this topic is warranted.