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Molecular beacon based real-time PCR p1 gene genotyping, macrolide resistance mutation detection and clinical characteristics analysis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in children

BMC Infect Dis. 2022 Sep 6;22(1):724. doi: 10.1186/s12879-022-07715-6.


BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae can be divided into different subtypes on the basis of the sequence differences of adhesive protein P1, but the relationship between different subtypes, macrolide resistance and clinical manifestations are still unclear. In the present study, we established a molecular beacon based real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) p1 gene genotyping method, analyzed the macrolide resistance gene mutations and the relationship of clinical characteristics with the genotypes.

METHODS: A molecular beacon based real-time PCR p1 gene genotyping method was established, the mutation sites of macrolide resistance genes were analyzed by PCR and sequenced, and the relationship of clinical characteristics with the genotypes was analyzed.

RESULTS: The detection limit was 1-100 copies/reaction. No cross-reactivity was observed in the two subtypes. In total, samples from 100 patients with positive M. pneumoniae detection results in 2019 and 2021 were genotyped using the beacon based real-time PCR method and P1-1 M. pneumoniae accounted for 69.0%. All the patients had the A2063G mutation in the macrolide resistance related 23S rRNA gene. Novel mutations were also found, which were C2622T, C2150A, C2202G and C2443A mutations. The relationship between p1 gene genotyping and the clinical characteristics were not statistically related.

CONCLUSION: A rapid and easy clinical application molecular beacon based real-time PCR genotyping method targeting the p1 gene was established. A shift from type 1 to type 2 was found and 100.0% macrolide resistance was detected. Our study provided an efficient method for genotyping M. pneumoniae, valuable epidemiological monitoring information and clinical treatment guidance to control high macrolide resistance.

PMID:36068499 | DOI:10.1186/s12879-022-07715-6

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