Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2022 Sep 13:zwac208. doi: 10.1093/eurjpc/zwac208. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The relationship between vegetable consumption and hypertension occurrence remains poorly characterized in sub-Saharan Africa.
AIM: This study assessed the association of vegetable consumption with odds of hypertension among indigenous Africans.
METHODS: We harmonized data on prior vegetable consumption and hypertension occurrence (defined as one of the following conditions; systolic blood pressure ≥140 or diastolic blood pressure ≥90mmHg or previous diagnosis or use of antihypertensive medications) from 16,445 participants across five African countries (Nigeria, South Africa, Kenya, Ghana and Burkina Faso) from the SIREN and AWI-Gen studies. Vegetable consumption (in servings/week) was classified as ‘low’ (<6). ‘moderate’ (6-11), ‘sufficient’ (12-29) and ‘high’ (≥30). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of hypertension were estimated by categories of vegetable consumption (using ‘low’ consumption as reference), adjusting for sex, age in years, family history of cardiovascular diseases, education, smoking, alcohol use, physical inactivity, body mass index, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia using logistic regressions at P < 0.05.
RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 53·0 (+/-10·7) years, and 7,552 (45·9%) were males, while 7,070 (42·9%) had hypertension. Also, 6,672(40·6%) participants had ‘low’ vegetable consumption, and 1,758(10·7%) had ‘high’ vegetable consumption. Multivariable-adjusted OR for hypertension by distribution of vegetable consumption (using ‘low’ consumption as reference), were 1·03 (95% CI: 0·95, 1·12) for ‘moderate’ consumption; 0·80 (0·73, 0·88) for ‘sufficient’ and 0·81 (0·72, 0·92) for ‘high’ consumption, P-for-trend <0·0001.
CONCLUSION: Indigenous Africans who consumed at least twelve servings of vegetables per week were less likely to be found hypertensive, particularly among males and young adults.