Mol Biol Rep. 2022 Sep 12. doi: 10.1007/s11033-022-07761-y. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: In cancer research, one of the most significant findings was to characterize the DNA repair deficiency as carcinogenic. Amongst the various repair mechanisms, mismatch repair (MMR) and direct reversal of DNA damage systems are designated as multilevel safeguards in the human genome. Defects in these elevate the rate of mutations and results in dire consequences like cancer. Of the several molecular signatures in human genome, tandem repeats (TRs) appear at various frequencies in the exonic, intronic, and regulatory regions of the DNA. Hypervariability among these repeats in the coding and non-coding regions of the genes is well characterized for solid tumours, but its significance in haematologic malignancies remains to be explored. The purpose of our study was to elucidate the role of nucleotide repeat instability in the coding and non-coding regions of 10 different repair genes in myeloid and lymphoid cell lines compared to the control samples.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We selected MMR deficient extensively studied microsatellite instable colorectal cancer (HCT116), and MMR proficient breast cancer (MCF-7) cells along with underemphasized haematologic cancer cell lines to decipher the hypermutability of tandem repeats. A statistically significant TR variation was observed for MSH2 and MSH6 genes in 4 and 3 of the 6 cell lines respectively. KG1 (AML) and Daudi (Burkitt’s lymphoma) were found to have compromised DNA repair competency with highly unstable nucleotide repeats.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, the results suggest that mutable TRs in intronic and non-intronic regions of repair genes in blood cancer might have a tumorigenic role. Since this is a pilot study on cell lines, high throughput research in large cohorts can be undertaken to reveal novel diagnostic markers for unexplained blood cancer patients with normal karyotypes or otherwise with karyotypic defects.