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Clinical, metabolic, and immunological characterisation of adult Ugandan patients with new-onset diabetes and low vitamin D status

BMC Endocr Disord. 2022 Sep 15;22(1):230. doi: 10.1186/s12902-022-01148-7.


BACKGROUND: Low vitamin D concentrations are associated with metabolic derangements, notably insulin resistance and pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction in Caucasian populations. Studies on its association with the clinical, metabolic, and immunologic characteristics in black African adult populations with new-onset diabetes are limited. This study aimed to describe the clinical, metabolic, and immunologic characteristics of a black Ugandan adult population with recently diagnosed diabetes and hypovitaminosis D.

METHODS: Serum vitamin D concentrations were measured in 327 participants with recently diagnosed diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D insufficiency, and normal vitamin D status were defined as serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels of < 20 ng/ml, 21-29 ng/ml, and ≥ 30 ng/ml, respectively.

RESULTS: The median (IQR) age, glycated haemoglobin, and serum vitamin D concentration of the participants were 48 years (39-58), 11% (8-13) or 96 mmol/mol (67-115), and 24 ng/ml (18-30), respectively. Vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D insufficiency, and normal vitamin D status were noted in 105 participants (32.1%), 140 participants (42.8%), and 82 participants (25.1%), respectively. Compared with those having normal serum vitamin D levels, participants with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency had higher circulating concentrations of interleukin (IL) 6 (29 [16-45] pg/ml, 23 [14-40] pg/ml vs 18 [14-32] pg/ml, p = 0.01), and IL-8 (24 [86-655] pg/ml, 207 [81-853] pg/ml vs 98 [67-224], p = 0.03). No statistically significant differences were noted in the markers of body adiposity, insulin resistance, and pancreatic beta-cell function between both groups.

CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were highly prevalent in our study population and were associated with increased circulating concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The absence of an association between pancreatic beta-cell function, insulin resistance, and low vitamin D status may indicate that the latter does not play a significant role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in our adult Ugandan population.

PMID:36109715 | DOI:10.1186/s12902-022-01148-7

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