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Dynamics of acylcarnitines, hypoglycin A, méthylènecyclopropylglycine and their metabolites in a Kladruber stallion with atypical myopathy

Vet Q. 2022 Sep 16:1-12. doi: 10.1080/01652176.2022.2126537. Online ahead of print.


Equine atypical myopathy (AM also referred to as multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenases deficiency [MADD]) is thought to be caused by toxins metabolized from hypoglycin A (HGA) and méthylènecyclopropylglycine (MCPrG). HGA is contained in the seeds and seedlings of the sycamore tree (Acer pseudoplatanus); MCPrG has so far only been confirmed in seeds. Among other things, these substances can disrupt the fatty acids β-oxidation pathway with the subsequent accumulation of certain acylcarnitines. The tentative diagnosis is based on anamnesis and clinical signs and can be verified by the detection of elevated creatine kinase activity, specific profile of acylcarnitines and the presence of HGA, MCPrG conjugates and/or their metabolites in peripheral blood and/or urine. Dry blood spots were collected for 15 days from a 3.5-year-old stallion which had been affected by AM and, as a control group, from twelve healthy horses. Two mass spectrometry methods were used for the analysis of 31 acylcarnitines, carnitine, HGA, MCPrG and their metabolites. HGA and six increased acylcarnitines were detected in the patient’s blood throughout the monitoring period. Nine acylcarnitines were strongly correlated with HGA. Multivariate statistical analysis showed a clear separation of samples from the AM horse, where the metabolic profile tended to normalization in the later days after intoxication. Due to the longer persistence in the blood, the detection of HGA and elevated acylcarnitines profile appear to be an appropriate tool to confirm the diagnosis of AM, compared to metabolic products of HGA and MCPrG even in advanced cases.

PMID:36114619 | DOI:10.1080/01652176.2022.2126537

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