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A comparative study of the prevalence of myopia and behavioral changes in primary school students

BMC Ophthalmol. 2022 Sep 18;22(1):370. doi: 10.1186/s12886-022-02594-6.


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes in the prevalence of myopia and its relation to ocular biological parameters, and behaviors among primary school students in China, and understand the prevention and control of myopia.

METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were performed on 7-9-year-old children in the yrs. 2012 and 2019. In addition, spherical equivalent refraction (SER), axial length (AL), and AL/corneal radius ratio (AL/CR ratio) were collected without cycloplegia. Participants completed detailed questionnaires on behavior related to myopia.

RESULTS: Data was collected on 623 children (8.02 ± 0.57 years old) in 2012 and 536 students in 2019 (8.09 ± 0.65 years old). The prevalence of myopia was 37.7% in 2012 and 39.9% in 2019. The SER was -0.25 (0.92) D in 2012 and -0.25 (1.25) in 2019. There was no statistical difference in the prevalence of myopia and SER over the 7 years (all P > 0.05). In 2019, the prevalence of myopia among girls demonstrated an increasing trend (33.8% vs. 37.8%), but there was no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The mean AL and AL/CR ratio of boys were decreasing (all P < 0.05). The proportion of children reading more than 2 h and using digital devices for more than 2 h per day after their classes in the 2019 group both decreased (all P < 0.05). However, the proportion of activities performed outdoors for more than 2 h./day decreased significantly (P = 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Compared with 2012, the prevalence of myopia in primary school students in 2019 was under control, which may be related to the improvement of children’s near-work behavior, but there was the problem of insufficient outdoor activity time. In terms of ocular biological parameters, the risk of myopia for boys in 2019 was lower.

PMID:36115954 | DOI:10.1186/s12886-022-02594-6

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