Int J Prosthodont. 2022 Jul-Aug;35(4):387-395. doi: 10.11607/ijp.7342.
PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcomes of single implants with titanium (Ti) or zirconia (Zr) abutments after up to 5 years in function.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis on single implants with screw-retained abutments (Zr or Ti) covered with porcelain veneer placed between 2011 and 2013 at one referral specialist clinic. Clinical data from patient records were collected from 132 patients and 174 implants. Technical complications such as fractures, chipping, and abutment screw loosening were registered. Radiographs were analyzed comparing both annual bone loss and accumulated bone loss at 5 years. In 57 patients with 85 implants, the values of accumulated bone loss at 5 years were compared to baseline.
RESULTS: Technical complications occurred in 16 (9%) of the implants, most often during the first year. The following complications were found: fracture of the abutment (n = 1); loosening of the abutment screws (n = 5); and chipping of the porcelain veneer (n = 11). Ti abutments had more complications than Zr abutments (79%). Of all the implants, 45% had an annual bone loss ranging between 0.05 and 2.15 mm, and 59% had an accumulated bone loss at 5 years ranging between 0.05 and 4.25 mm. Zr abutments had a statistically significantly higher amount of yearly and accumulated bone loss at 5 years.
CONCLUSION: Abutment material affected marginal bone loss. The Zr group displayed statistically more bone loss both yearly and after 5 years compared to the Ti group. Technical complications were not affected by abutment material but were affected by age of the patient.