Int Ophthalmol. 2022 Sep 21. doi: 10.1007/s10792-022-02486-0. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: Within a population-based follow-up study, to examine the 10-year incidence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX), possible risk factors for PEX and its association with ocular aging of the cornea, lens and retina.
METHODS: The baseline examination was conducted in 2006 on a random sample of 1,033 adult participants from Kaunas city (Lithuania) population of whom 631 had ophthalmic examination data at attendance of the 10-year follow-up in 2016. Detailed examination of the anterior and posterior segment of the eye was carried out. After diagnostic mydriasis PEX was diagnosed by the presence of typical grayish-white exfoliation material on the anterior capsule surface of the lens. The participants were divided to PEX and non-PEX groups.
RESULTS: PEX prevalence increased from 9.8 to 34.2% from baseline to 10-year follow-up. Nuclear cataract was common both in the PEX group (66.7%) and in those without PEX (72.2%), but this difference did not reach statistically significantly increased risk of developing cataract in those with PEX (OR 1.2; p = 0.61). Central corneal thickness (CCT) was thinner in the PEX group (529 ± 34 μm) and in the oldest group (525 ± 36 μm) (p < 0.001). Compared to baseline, corneal curvature (CC) became flatter in both groups (7.6 ± 0.27 vs 7.7 ± 0.26 mm; p < 0.001) during the follow-up, but the difference did not reach significance between groups. Corneal astigmatism was most commonly with-the-rule in both groups (37 (50.0%) vs 148 (68.5%); p > 0.05). Age, sex and PEX had no influence on age-related macular degeneration distribution.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PEX increased significantly with age in our population, with those with PEX having thinner and flatter corneae, but no difference in cataract and age-related macular degeneration characteristics.