J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2022 Sep 22:1-11. doi: 10.1080/10934529.2022.2125738. Online ahead of print.
The objective of this study was the determination of major and trace elements in the bee pollen samples from the whole territory of Republic of Kosovo. Pollen, as a natural plant product, is exposed to different contaminations absorbed by plants from the soil through the root system or with water intake, as well as to pollutants of different origins, including anthropogenic ones, deposited directly on pollen. In total 67 pollen samples were collected in 2019. The samples were analyzed for 27 macro and microelements by using ICP-AES and ICP-MS. The mean content of major elements in bee pollen was 4065, 3455, 1375 and 549 mg/kg for K, P, Ca and Mg, respectively. The range of the contents for some potentially toxic elements was 11.9-139.1, 1.9-16, 0.11-6.25, 0.01-0.329 and 0.001-0.38 mg/kg for Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and As, respectively. Three groups of elements of mixed origin were identified through factor analysis: the first and the third Factors, are mostly of geogenic origin (Ag, Li, Al, Fe, Ca, Sr, K, Mg and P and Co, Ni, Cr, Cu and Mn) and the second Factor association is related to anthropogenic processes (Sb, As, Pb, Tl, Sn and Cd).