Ann Hematol. 2022 Sep 22. doi: 10.1007/s00277-022-04984-8. Online ahead of print.
Despite widespread concern about energy imbalance due to tumor and chemotherapy-related side effects, little is known about detailed variations in energy input, metabolic rate, and physical activity. This study explored changes in energy balance components and serum biomarkers of patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy. Our prospective study included 40 patients with hematologic malignancies hospitalized for chemotherapy. We measured energy balance components, physical function, and serum biomarkers at baseline and weekly after chemotherapy for 3 weeks. Significant weight loss, representing negative energy balance, occurred at 2 (p = 0.002) and 3 weeks (p < 0.001) post-chemotherapy. Statistically reduced oral intake was observed at 3 weeks post-chemotherapy (p = 0.040), and resting energy expenditure statistically decreased according to Harris-Benedict equation, but not to Penn State University equation. Physical function according to DEMMI score decreased significantly at 3 weeks post-chemotherapy (p = 0.002). Serum biomarker analysis demonstrated significant changes in albumin, total protein, CXCL13, and GDF15, with exception of leptin. Although conventional serum biomarkers (total protein and albumin) did not reach pathological states despite their statistical differences, subgroup analysis showed CXCL13 in weight loss group and GDF15 in reduced oral intake group were significantly changed. Over half of patients (65.0%, n = 26) suffered from energy imbalance associated with weight loss and reduced oral intake during chemotherapy. Serial laboratory results suggested that novel biomarkers (CXCL13, GDF15) could be correlated with cachexic state and reduced food intake. Monitoring clinical and serum biomarkers associated with energy balance together can help identify needs for nutritional support in patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy.