PLoS One. 2022 Sep 23;17(9):e0275032. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0275032. eCollection 2022.
BACKGROUND: Though initiation of insulin results in a significant change in glycemic levels, treating patients without significant hypoglycemic events remains difficult in diabetes patients initiated with different insulin-based regimens. This study assessed the association of hypoglycemic incidence and glycemic control between NPH and premixed insulin regimens in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study in patients with T2DM who were treated with insulin-based therapy from 2015 to 2020 at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized hospital. Average fasting blood glucose (FBG) between NPH and premixed insulin regimens was compared using an independent t-test. The Association of NPH and premixed insulin regimens with hypoglycemic incidences and glycemic control was examined by a logistic regression model. P < 0.05 was statistically significant.
RESULTS: From 405 participants, more than half (55.3%) were males with a mean age of 59.2(±9.1) years. Baseline mean HbA1C and FBG levels were 12.73(±1.1) % and 347.7(±48.5) mg/dl, respectively. Within a one-year follow-up period of insulin initiation, the rate of hypoglycemia was 13.1%. The incidence of hypoglycemia was significantly higher in patients initiated with premixed insulin compared with NPH insulin regimens (P < 0.001). After one year of insulin initiation, HbA1C decreased from 12.7 to 7.6 and from 12.8 to 7.3% and FBG levels decreased from 347.5 to 160.7 and from 348.2 to 147.3 mg/dl following initiation of NPH and premixed insulin, respectively. Patients treated with premixed-based insulin were found more likely to achieve target FBG compared with patients treated with NPH insulin regimens after one year of initiation (P = 0.02).
CONCLUSION: Premixed insulin-based regimen has found to have a higher hypoglycemic incidence, but a better level of glycemic control compared to NPH insulin-based therapy. Therefore, patients initiated with premixed insulin need to be highly vigilant and motivated to recognize the symptoms of hypoglycemia.