J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2022 Oct 23:1-7. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2022.2139175. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) prevalence has risen in the U.S. and worldwide over the past decade. Minority groups, especially Asian and Hispanic women, are often disproportionately affected by GDM. Identifying modifiable risk factors such as sleep-disordered breathing and smoking and their interaction with race/ethnicity could play a pivotal role in preventing GDM.
METHODS: Data from the 2017-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to run a survey-weighted multivariable logistic regression assessing the association between sleep-disordered breathing and smoking with GDM among women aged 15-60 (n = 1326). The interaction term of the two predictors and race/ethnicity was introduced to the model to assess the interaction effect. The analyses were adjusted for age, marital status, education level, and BMI.
RESULTS: Approximately 13% of the participants reported having GDM. The lowest prevalence was observed among Non-Hispanic Blacks (7.8%) and the highest was among Other (15.5%). Sleep-disordered breathing was significantly associated with GDM (OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.05, 2.73). No statistically significant association was observed between smoking and GDM (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.47, 2.27), and neither was the association between race/ethnicity and GDM. Furthermore, none of the interaction effects were statistically significant.
CONCLUSION: Preventive strategies targeting GDM should focus on improving modifiable risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing. It is important to screen women with sleep-disordered breathing and monitor their blood sugar before becoming pregnant to prevent the development of GDM. Future studies are recommended to understand the lower prevalence of GDM among Black women and the higher prevalence among “Other” race group which mostly includes Asian women.