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Arabic version of the Palliative Care Self-Efficacy Scale: Translation, adaptation, and validation

Palliat Support Care. 2022 Oct 26:1-8. doi: 10.1017/S1478951522001456. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVES: A lack of confidence among oncology nurses might be problematic when providing palliative care. No valid and reliable tool is currently available in Saudi Arabia to assess oncology nurses’ confidence in providing palliative care. This study aims to explain the process of translation, adaptation, and validation of the Palliative Care Self-Efficacy Scale (PCSS) to support its use in the Saudi context.

METHODS: This was a methodological study of translation, cultural adaptation, and content validation of PCSS. The process of translation and adaptation was conducted according to the World Health Organization guidelines, including forward and backward translations, an expert panel review, and pretesting and cognitive interviewing, resulting in a final version. Two independent bilingual oncology nurses familiar with palliative care terminology translated the PCSS from English to Modern Standard Arabic. Next, the concise PCSS translation developed from the 2 translations was back-translated to English by 2 English-speaking translators and then compared to the original PCSS. The Arabic version PCSS was evaluated by Saudi professionals (N = 5) in oncology and palliative care nursing using a Likert scale for essentiality, relevance, clarity, and appropriateness. The content validity was examined using the calculation of the content validity ratio, item-level content validity index (I-CVI), and modified kappa statistics. The thinking aloud method was also used to interview Saudi oncology nurses (N = 8) who had palliative care experience.

RESULTS: The relevance, clarity, and appropriateness of the first Arabic version PCSS were validated. It had a level of content validity index of 1.00 for all items after improvements were made based on the recommendations of experts and oncology nurses.

SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: The PCSS demonstrated face and content validity in the assessment of oncology nurses’ confidence in providing palliative care. The PCSS is suitable for use in palliative cancer care units in Saudi Arabia to identify the educational needs of nurses to promote their confidence and improve the quality of care. Additional reliable and valid language versions of the PCSS allow for international and national comparisons, which may be useful for oncology nursing administrators or managers who are accountable for the quality of palliative care during the strategic health-care planning process in cancer services.

PMID:36285511 | DOI:10.1017/S1478951522001456

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