Environ Sci Technol. 2022 Oct 26. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.2c04150. Online ahead of print.
As the largest emission source in the Pan-Third Pole region, residential solid fuel combustion gains increasing public concern regarding air pollution-associated health impacts. This study firstly developed emission inventories by combining energy statistics, fuel-mix survey, and detailed emission factors considering different fuel types, stove types, and altitudes, and we achieved full regional coverage and increased spatial resolution from 9 × 9 km to 1 km × 1 km. Total CO2, CO, PM2.5, SO2, and NOx emissions (coefficient of variation) were estimated to be 823 Mt (24%), 53 Mt (28%), 4525 kt (48%), 1388 kt (55%), and 1275 kt (46%) in 2020. India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh combined contributed 73, 57, 65, 67, and 69% of total CO2, CO, PM2.5, SO2, and NOx emissions, respectively, due to the large population. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau had the second-highest emission intensity, mainly due to the high fuel consumption per capita. Unlike the emissions of the Pan-Third Pole in existing Asian inventories, dung cake combustion dominated total PM2.5, SO2, and NOx emissions rather than firewood combustion with proportions of 54, 70, and 67%, respectively. The effect of altitude on combustion efficiencies increased PM2.5 emissions by about 21% from the region. The method and results can provide technical guidance for emission inventory refinement in the Pan-Third Pole and other regions.