Transl Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2022 Oct 25;7:39. doi: 10.21037/tgh-20-280. eCollection 2022.
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal procedures generally require pre-procedural fasting to optimize sedation safety. While the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) recommends no intake of clear liquids and solid food 2-4 and 6-8 hours respectively prior to endoscopic procedures, the actual nil per os (NPO) duration for these procedures in practice is unknown. Our objective was to analyze NPO duration for patients undergoing these procedures and to determine its association with clinical and administrative variables.
METHODS: Inpatient data from 2016-2018 for the three procedures was extracted from electronic medical records and administrative data at a single-center tertiary academic medical center. Various statistical tests (Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon, Pearson) were employed depending on the outcome type and data distribution.
RESULTS: One thousand three hundred and twenty-five esophagogastroduodenoscopies (EGDs), 753 colonoscopies, and 550 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies (ERCPs) were included. The median NPO time for all procedures was 12.6 hours (IQR, 9.6-16.1 hours). The median NPO times were 12.6, 11.9, and 13.1 hours for EGD, colonoscopy, and ERCP respectively. NPO duration was greater for Hispanic than non-Hispanic patients (median 13.9 vs. 12.4, P=0.018). NPO duration was also associated with increased age (r=0.041, P=0.027) and inversely related to hospital occupancy (r=-0.08, P<0.0001). There were no statistically significant associations with provider type, hospital location or service, length of stay, and total number of comorbidities.
CONCLUSIONS: NPO times for common inpatient gastroenterology (GI) procedures generally exceeded 12 hours, suggesting there is an opportunity to adopt changes to decrease NPO duration for low-risk patients while maintaining adherence to guidelines and best practice.