Nevin Manimala Statistics

Is Ethiopian community-based health insurance affordable? Willingness to pay analysis among households in South Central, Ethiopia

PLoS One. 2022 Oct 27;17(10):e0276856. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0276856. eCollection 2022.


BACKGROUND: Community-based Health Insurance (CBHI) is a voluntary prepayment mechanism that guarantees the provision of basic healthcare services without financial barriers to underserved segments of the population in developing countries. The Government of Ethiopia launched the CBHI program to protect the community from high out-of-pocket health expenditure and improve health service utilization a decade ago. However, to improve the quality of healthcare services delivery in health facilities and cover the changing costs of healthcare, the government should revise the contribution of the CBHI scheme. Therefore, we determined the willingness to pay for a CBHI scheme and associated factors among rural households of Lemu and Bilbilo district, South Central Ethiopia.

METHODS: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study design to assess willingness to pay for the CBHI scheme and its associated factors among households in Lemu and Bilbilo districts, South Central Ethiopia. We used a double bounded contingent valuation method to elicit households’ willingness to pay for the CBHI scheme. Data were coded, cleaned, entered into Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 25, and exported to STATA 16 for analysis. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the presence of statistically significant associations between the willingness to pay for the CBHI scheme and independent variables at a p-value <0.05 and Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) values with 95% CI. Finally, we checked the fitness of the model using Hosmer and Lemeshow’s goodness-of-fit test.

RESULTS: Of the 476 study participants, 82.9% (95% CI: 79.2%, 86.01%) were willing to pay for the CBHI scheme and only 62% of them can afford the average amount of 358.32ETB ($7.68) per household per annum. Primary education (AOR = 3.17; 95% CI: 1.74-5.80), secondary and above education (AOR = 4.13; 95% CI: 1.86-9.18), large family size (AOR = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.26-5.97), monthly income of 500-1000ETB (AOR = 3.75; 95% CI: 1.97-7.13) and distance to public health facilities (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.04-4.39 were significantly associated with willingness to pay for the CBHI scheme.

CONCLUSION: In this study, around 83% of respondents were willing to pay for the CBHI and meet the government expectation for 2020. The study also revealed that educational status, family size, monthly income, and distance from the health facilities were significant factors associated with WTP for the CBHI scheme. In addition, we found that a large number of the respondents couldn’t afford the average amount of money that the participants were willing to pay for the CBHI scheme. So, the government should consider the economic status of the communities while revising the CBHI scheme premium not to miss those who cannot afford the contribution.

PMID:36301951 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0276856

By Nevin Manimala

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