Nevin Manimala Statistics

Water treatment at the point-of-use and treatment preferences among households in Ethiopia: A contemporaneous systematic review and meta-analysis

PLoS One. 2022 Oct 27;17(10):e0276186. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0276186. eCollection 2022.


BACKGROUND: Water is essential for maintaining human life, health, and dignity. Untreated water consumption causes 1.8 million deaths annually, over 99.8% of which happen in developing nations and 90% of which include children. Point-of-use water treatment enables people without reliable access to safe drinking water to reduce contamination and minimize microbial risk levels. This Systematic Review and Meta-analysis was, therefore, used to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant evidence about water treatment practices and their associated factors among Ethiopian households.

METHODS: PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, ProQuest, and other databases were searched for studies published before May 5, 2022. The final synthesis included twelve investigations. Microsoft Excel was used to extract the data, and STATA 16 was used for the analysis. The Joanna Briggs Institute’s Critical assessment checklist for prevalence studies was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies. Egger’s test and funnel plot were used to assess publication bias. I2 statistics were calculated to check for study heterogeneity. The DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model was used to analyze the pooled effect size, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals across studies. Analysis of subgroups was done by publication year and geographic region.

RESULTS: Of the 550 identified articles, 12 studies were eligible for analysis (n = 4849 participants). The pooled prevalence estimate of point-of-use water treatment practice among Ethiopian homes was 36.07% (95% CI: 21.94-50.19, I2 = 99.5%). Receiving training from Community health workers (OR, 1.7; 95% CI: 1.33-2.08), female headship (OR, 2.52; 95% CI: 1.60-3.44), and household wealth (OR, 1.6; 95% CI: 1.19-2.16) were significantly associated with point-of-use water treatment practice.

CONCLUSION: Despite the absence of safely managed water sources, very few homes routinely treated their drinking water. Adoption of water treatment practices necessitates ongoing communication and assistance from health extension personnel. Moreover, program planners must be aware of the many user categories that households may fall under to guarantee that ongoing training messages and treatment products reach every home.

PMID:36301990 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0276186

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