Isr Med Assoc J. 2022 Oct;24(10):661-665.
BACKGROUND: Gestational hypertensive (GH) disorders remain a major obstetric problem.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of gestational hypertensive disorders among participants undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) after exposure to various levels of sperm from sperm donation (SD).
METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted at a single tertiary medical center between 2011 and 2019. Participants conceived via IUI using SD from a single sperm bank and had a successful singleton birth. Group 1 conceived during 1-2 cycles of IUI from the same sperm donor; whereas Group 2 after 3+ cycles.
RESULTS: Overall 171 patients (Group 1 = 81, Group 2 = 90) met inclusion criteria. Participants showed no differences in age, chronic medical conditions, or history of pregnancy complications. The groups differed in gravidity and parity. The factors positively associated with Group 1 included either preeclampsia or GH (11 [13.5%] vs. 1 [1.1%], P = 0.001) and GH alone (8 [9.9%] vs. 1 [1.1%], P = 0.014). Newborns from Group 1 had a statistically significant lower birth weight than those from Group 2 (3003 grams ± 564.21 vs. 3173 grams ± 502.59, P = 0.039). GH was more prevalent in Group 1 (P = 0.008) than a control group of 45,278 participants who conceived spontaneously. No significant differences were observed between Group 2 and the control group.
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of GH and preeclampsia in participants was higher among those exposed to 1-2 cycles than those exposed to 3+ cycles of IUI.