Ann Nucl Med. 2022 Oct 30. doi: 10.1007/s12149-022-01797-7. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate the prognostic meaning of volumetric and semi-quantitative parameters measured using [18F]FDG PET/CT and somatostatin receptor (SSTR) imaging in patients with typical lung carcinoid (TC), and their relationship with proliferative index (Ki67).
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 67 patients (38-94 years old, mean: 69.7) with diagnosis of TC who underwent [18F]FDG PET/CT and/or SSTR scintigraphy/SPECT with [111In]DTPA-Octreotide plus contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) at staging evaluation. All patients had Ki67 measured and a follow-up (FU) of at least 1 year. SSTR density (SSTRd) was calculated as the percentage difference of tumor/non-tumor ratio at 4 and 24 h post-injection. At PET/CT, metabolic activity was measured using SUVmax and SUVratio; volumetric parameters included MTV and TLG of the primary tumor, measured using the threshold SUV41%. ROC analysis, discriminant analysis and Kaplan-Meier curves (KM) were performed.
RESULTS: 11 patients died during FU. Disease stage (localized versus advanced), SUVratio, SUVmax, Ki67, MTV and TLG were significantly higher in non-survivors than in survivors. ROC curves resulted statistically significant for Ki67, SUVratio, SUVmax, MTV and TLG. On multivariate analysis, stage of disease and TLG were significant independent predictors of overall survival (OS). In KM curves, the combination of disease stage and TLG identified four groups with significantly different outcomes (p < 0.005). Metabolic activity (SUVmax and SUVratio) was confirmed as significant independent prognostic factor for OS also in patients with advanced disease, with the best AUC using SUVmax. In patients with advanced and localized disease, SSTRd proved to be the best imaging prognostic factor for progression and for disease-free survival (DFS), respectively. In localized disease, SSTRd 31.5% identified two subgroups of patients with significant different DFS distribution and in advanced disease, a high cutoff value (58.5%) was a significant predictor of adverse prognosis.
CONCLUSION: Volumetric and semi-quantitative parameters measured using [18F]FDG PET/CT and SSTR imaging combined with Ki67 may provide a reference for prognosis evaluation of patients with TC, to better stratify risk groups with the goal of developing individualized therapeutic strategies.