Klin Lab Diagn. 2022 Oct 14;67(10):570-574. doi: 10.51620/0869-2084-2022-67-10-570-574.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant tumor occurring from plasma cells that produce an abnormal monoclonal immunoglobulin – a paraprotein. A distinctive feature of Bence-Jones myeloma is the excretion of monoclonal free light chains of immunoglobulins with 24h urine, and the absence of monoclonal intact immunoglobulins secretion. Comprehensive analysis of biochemical parameters in blood serum and 24h urine in patients with Bence-Jones multiple myeloma using electrophoretic and immunoturbidimetric methods to assess their sensitivity as biomarkers. 50 patients with a morphologically confirmed diagnosis of MM of the Bence-Jones immunochemical type were examined. 28 people without oncological diseases were examinedas a control. Detection of monoclonal secretion in blood serum and daily urine was performed by immunofixation electrophoresis on the Hydrasys 2 electrophoretic system (Sebia). The determination of free light chains of immunoglobulins (FLC) was performed by the immunoturbidimetric method (Binding Site) on an Advia 1800 analyzer (Siemens). Analysis of IgG, IgA, IgM, β2-microglobulin and C-reactive protein was performed on Cobas 6000 analyzer (Roche). The median excretion of Bence-Jones protein in 24h urine of MM patients was 0.49 g/24h (0.06-2.45 g/24h). In the blood serum, in 86% of cases, the presence of paraproteinemia, represented by κ and λ type light chains of immunogloublins was detected. At the same time, the frequency of detection of monoclonal secretion in blood serum in Bence-Jones type λ myeloma was 95.7%, which was statistically significantly higher than the frequency of detection of monoclonal secretion of type κ – 77.8%. In patients with identified paraproteinemia, Bence-Jones protein excretion in daily urine (median 0.82 g/day) was statistically significantly higher than in patients without a monoclonal component detected in blood serum (median 0.04 g/24h). The levels of FLC in blood serum obtained by immunoturbidimetry in Bence-Jones myeloma of the corresponding type were higher than the reference levels in 100% of cases. The median level of κ-FLC reached 4358 mg/l, λ-FLC – 2225 mg/l, which was statistically significantly higher than the control levels. The median concentrations of IgG, IgA and IgM in patients with Bence-Jones myeloma were statistically significantly lower than in the control group, while the medians of β2-microglobulin and C-reactive protein were significantly higher than in the control. Our investigation showed high diagnostic efficiency of electrophoretic and immunoturbidimetric analysis of monoclonal secretion in patients with Bence-Jones MM, while FLC analysis demonstrated maximum sensitivity. Bence-Jones MM revealed biochemical signs of secondary immunodeficiency and general inflammatory syndrome.