J Magn Reson Imaging. 2022 Oct 31. doi: 10.1002/jmri.28467. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) multiecho balanced steady-state free precession (ME-bSSFP) has previously been demonstrated in preclinical hyperpolarized (HP) 13 C-MRI in vivo experiments, and it may be suitable for clinical metabolic imaging of prostate cancer (PCa).
PURPOSE: To validate a signal simulation framework for the use of sequence parameter optimization. To demonstrate the feasibility of ME-bSSFP for HP 13 C-MRI in patients. To evaluate the metabolism in PCa measured by ME-bSSFP.
STUDY TYPE: Retrospective single-center cohort study.
PHANTOMS/POPULATION: Phantoms containing aqueous solutions of [1-13 C] lactate (2.3 M) and [13 C] urea (8 M). Eight patients (mean age 67 ± 6 years) with biopsy-confirmed Gleason 3 + 4 (n = 7) and 4 + 3 (n = 1) PCa. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCES: 1 H MRI at 3 T with T2 -weighted turbo spin-echo sequence used for spatial localization and spoiled dual gradient-echo sequence used for B0 -field measurement. ME-bSSFP sequence for 13 C MR spectroscopic imaging with retrospective multipoint IDEAL metabolite separation.
ASSESSMENT: The primary endpoint was the analysis of pyruvate-to-lactate conversion in PCa and healthy prostate regions of interest (ROIs) using model-free area under the curve (AUC) ratios and a one-directional kinetic model (kP ). The secondary objectives were to investigate the correlation between simulated and experimental ME-bSSFP metabolite signals for HP 13 C-MRI parameter optimization.
STATISTICAL TESTS: Pearson correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals and paired t-tests. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.
RESULTS: Strong correlations between simulated and empirical ME-bSSFP signals were found (r > 0.96). Therefore, the simulation framework was used for sequence optimization. Whole prostate metabolic HP 13 C-MRI, observing the conversion of pyruvate into lactate, with a temporal resolution of 6 seconds was demonstrated using ME-bSSFP. Both assessed metrics resulted in significant differences between PCa (mean ± SD) (AUC = 0.33 ± 012, kP = 0.038 ± 0.014) and healthy (AUC = 0.15 ± 0.10, kP = 0.011 ± 0.007) ROIs.
DATA CONCLUSION: Metabolic HP 13 C-MRI in the prostate using ME-bSSFP allows for differentiation between aggressive PCa and healthy tissue.
EVIDENCE LEVEL: 2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 1.