J Can Dent Assoc. 2022 Jul;88:m5.
OBJECTIVES: To understand the risk factors that may be associated with the development of oral lichen planus (OLP) and its progression.
STUDY DESIGN: We conducted retrospective chart reviews of adult patients with OLP who presented to oral medicine and oral pathology clinics in 2 provinces between September 2016 and January 2020. Data regarding age, sex, disease duration, sites of involvement, comorbidities, medications, allergies, smoking, alcohol use, treatment and follow up were collected. Descriptive statistics were assessed.
RESULTS: Among the 94 patients with OLP, mean age was 62 years and most were female (73%). Mean disease duration was 3.1 years. Hypertension, thyroid disorders and diabetes were present in 32%, 28% and 17% of patients, respectively. A significant proportion of patients reported a major surgical procedure (47%) as a preceding event and an additional 7% reported a preceding stressful life event. Three OLP patients (3%) developed squamous cell carcinoma or dysplasia. The mean disease duration for these patients was 4.06 years and the frequency of biopsy in our study was approximately 14%.
CONCLUSIONS: Female sex, endocrine and immunological comorbidities, such as thyroid disease and diabetes, and psychological stress may play a role in the development of OLP in the Canadian population. A small percentage of patients may develop malignant transformation and, thus, require long-term monitoring.