J Card Surg. 2022 Nov 6. doi: 10.1111/jocs.17101. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Redo mitral valve surgeries have high mortality and morbidity and can be physically demanding for patients. Median sternotomy remains the gold standard for most cardiac surgeries. To tackle certain risks with a re-sternotomy, alternative procedures such as the right anterolateral minithoracotomy have been explored. This review aims to compare the clinical outcomes of re-sternotomy (MS) versus right mini thoracotomy (MT) in mitral valve surgery.
METHODS: A systematic, electronic search was performed according to Preferred Reporting items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines to identify relevant articles that compared outcomes of the MS versus MT procedures in patients who have had cardiac surgery via a MS approach.
RESULTS: Twelve studies were identified, enrolling 4514 patients. Length of hospital stay(MD = -3.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-4.92, -2.49]), 30-day mortality(odds ratio [OR] = 0.59, 95% CI [0.39, 0.90]), and new-onset renal failure(OR = 0.38, 95% CI [0.22, 0.65]) were statistically significant in favor of the MT approach. Infection rates(OR = 0.56, 95% CI[0.25, 1.21]) and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay (MD = -0.55, 95% CI[-1.16, 0.06]) was lower in the MT group; however, the difference was not significant. No significant differences were observed in the CPB time(MD = -2.33, 95% CI [-8.15, 3.50]), aortic cross-clamp time MD = -1.67, 95% CI[-17.07, 13.76]), and rates of stroke(OR = 1.03, 95% CI[0.55, 1.92]).
CONCLUSION: Right MT is a safe alternative to the traditional re-sternotomy for patients who have had previous cardiac surgery. The approach offers a reduced length of hospital stay, ICU stay, and a lower risk of new-onset renal failure requiring dialysis. This review calls for robust trials in the field to further strengthen the evidence.