Hormones (Athens). 2022 Nov 7. doi: 10.1007/s42000-022-00412-8. Online ahead of print.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Intensive insulin therapy in the treatment of type 1 diabetes can, in place of multiple daily injections of subcutaneous insulin (MDI), be performed with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) systems. This method allows for better glycemic control and thus reduces the risk of complications of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of treatment with CSII in Portugal.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the records on the national CSII platform was carried out between January 2010 and August 2021. All the registered patients are followed in certified CSII treatment centers in Portugal. Of the 7135 registered patients, 3807 were excluded due to absence of monitoring data. The reasons for treatment were analyzed and a comparison was made between patients with and without CSII. The statistical significance considered was α < 0.05.
RESULTS: A total of 3328 patients were included in the study, 1136 under MDI and 2192 under CSII. The main reasons for CSII use were marked glycemic variability (25%) and HbA1c greater than 7% (23%). Patients under CSII had a lower HbA1c (7.7 ± 1.0% vs. 8.0 ± 1.5%, p < 0.001), as well as a lower frequency of episodes of severe hypoglycemia (1.4 vs. 3.3 per 100 patient-years, p < 0.001), and ketoacidosis (1 vs. 2.4 per 100 patient-years, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The present analysis validates the advantage of using CSII in metabolic control and reduction of acute complications of type 1 diabetes, both severe hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis, in the Portuguese population. CSII therapy is classically associated with an increased risk of ketoacidosis; however, in experienced centers and adequate patient education, the opposite is found.