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Sex differences in periprocedural and long-term outcomes following transcatheter left atrial appendage occlusion: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Cardiovasc Revasc Med. 2022 Oct 8:S1553-8389(22)00819-3. doi: 10.1016/j.carrev.2022.10.002. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is among the most common arrhythmias associated with an increased risk of cardioembolic phenomena, including stroke. Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) has proven beneficial in reducing stroke and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation who have contraindications to anticoagulation. However, the sex differences in outcomes following LAAO have not been studied systematically.

METHODS: Electronic databases PUBMED, Embase, and Web of Science were systematically searched until March 2022 for studies evaluating patient outcomes following LAAO for AF. The primary outcomes of interest were the risks of periprocedural stroke, major bleeding, pericardial complications, and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included stroke risks, major bleeding, device-related thrombus, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality on long-term follow-up. A random-effects model meta-analysis was conducted, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I-squared test.

RESULTS: Sixteen studies were included in the final analysis encompassing 111,775 patients, out of which 45,441 (40.7 %) were women. Women had a significantly higher risk of peri-procedural complications including all-cause mortality [relative risk (RR), 95 % confidence intervals (CI); RR 1.94, 95 % CI 1.40-2.69], stroke [RR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.29-2.67], major bleeding [RR 1.63, 95 % CI 1.08-2.44], and pericardial events [RR 1.80, 95 % CI 1.58-2.05]. However, there were no statistically significant differences between sexes in terms of risk of stroke, major bleeding, device-related thrombus, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality on long-term follow-up.

CONCLUSION: Among patients undergoing LAAO implantation, women were at higher risk of periprocedural complications than men. This risk was not significant on long-term follow-up.

PMID:36336589 | DOI:10.1016/j.carrev.2022.10.002

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