Results Probl Cell Differ. 2022;70:35-69. doi: 10.1007/978-3-031-06573-6_2.
The purpose of our studies is to elucidate the nature of massive control of the whole genome expression with a particular emphasis on cell-fate change. The whole genome expression is coordinated by the emergence of a critical point (CP: a peculiar set of biphasic genes) with the genome acting as an integrated dynamical system. In response to stimuli, the genome expression self-organizes into local sub-, near-, and super-critical states, each exhibiting distinct collective behaviors with its center of mass acting as a local attractor, coexisting with the whole genome attractor (GA). The CP serves as the organizing center of cell-fate change, and its activation makes local perturbation to spread over the genome affecting GA. The activation of CP is in turn elicited by genes with elevated temporal variance (oscillating-mode genes), normally in charge to keep genome expression at pace with microenvironment fluctuations. When oscillation exceeds a given threshold, the CP synchronizes with the GA driving genome expression state transition. The expression synchronization wave invading the entire genome is fostered by the fusion-splitting dynamics of silencing pericentromere-associated heterochromatin domains and the consequent folding-unfolding transitions of transcribing euchromatin domains. The proposed mechanism is a unified step toward a time-evolutional transition theory of biological regulation.