Dig Dis Sci. 2022 Nov 9. doi: 10.1007/s10620-022-07741-z. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: Esophageal foreign body impaction (FBI) is a commonly encountered gastrointestinal emergency requiring immediate intervention. Foreign bodies can be composed of food, commonly referred to as a “food bolus” (FB), or other matter (non-food). We aim to conduct systematic review and meta-analysis to compare cap-assisted and conventional endoscopic techniques for removal of esophageal FBI.
METHODS: A comprehensive search technique was utilized to identify studies that used capped endoscopic devices to remove FB or other esophageal foreign bodies. The primary outcomes were the technical success rate, rate of en bloc retrieval, and procedure time. Secondary outcomes were overall adverse events, bleeding, mucosal tears, and perforation.
RESULTS: Seven studies with a total of 1407 patients were included. The mean patient age was 55.3 (SD ± 7.2) years and 44.8% of patients were male. There were two RCTs and five observational studies among the included studies. The technical success rate was significantly higher in the cap-assisted group compared to the conventional group (OR 3.47, CI 1.68-7.168, I2 = 0%, p = < 0.001), as well as the en bloc retrieval rate (OR 26.90, CI 17.82-40.60, I2 = 0%, p = 0.001). There was a trend towards lower procedural time for the cap-assisted group compared to the conventional group, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (MD – 10.997, CI – 22.78-0.786, I2 = 99.9%, p = 0.06). The overall adverse events were significantly lower in the cap-assisted group compared to the conventional group (OR 0.118, CI 0.018-0.792, I2 = 81.79%, p = 0.02).
CONCLUSION: The cap-assisted technique has improved efficacy and safety. To confirm these results, larger randomized trials are warranted.